Documentation Nexus IQ Server 1.32

9.7. Understanding the Parts of a Policy

A policy is the set of rules or criteria used by IQ Server to evaluate components in your applications and repositories. It is made up of the following parts:

Each of these parts is described below in more detail.

9.7.1. Policy Name

The Policy Name should be descriptive of the risk or violation you’re trying to detect. In the text box, you can enter up to 60 characters: alphanumerics, underscores (_), periods (.), dashes (-), or spaces. The name you enter is used to identify the policy in IQ Server reports and views. To avoid confusion in your system hierarchy, it is recommended that you assign a unique name to every policy; try not to repeat names of policies created in other organizations.

9.7.2. Threat Level

The Threat Level is a subjective value placed on the perceived risk of a vulnerability. Its main purpose is for sorting policy violations in IQ Server reports and views; the violations with the highest threat level appear first followed by those with lower threat levels. The Threat Level values are grouped by severity and identified by specific colors as shown in the table below:

Table 9.1. Threat Levels

High

Red

8-10

Medium

Orange

4-7

Low

Yellow

2-3

Informational

Dark Blue

1

None

Light Blue

0


When setting the Threat Level, you should avoid causing unnecessary alarm for those who review policy violations. Select the lowest possible value that’s helpful to you, such as an informational level (1) or low level (2-3). Save the high level values (8-10) for only the most critical vulnerabilities, if used at all.

9.7.3. Inheritance

The Inheritance setting is available only for organizations (including the Root organization). It allows you to specify how a policy is implemented when there are multiple applications attached to a specific organization. There are two choices:

  • All - The policy is applied to every application attached to the organization.
  • Applications of the specified Application Categories in [organization] - The policy is applied only to applications that have specific application categories assigned to them. With this setting, you select which application categories to use.

The latter choice lets you tailor the implementation of a policy to applications with similar characteristics by using application categories. For more information on how to create and assign application categories, see Application Categories in the Advanced Policy Management chapter.

figs/web/server-policy-inheritance.png

Figure 9.4. Inheritance Settings


[Note]

For policies at the Root Organization level, if you are a user of the Firewall solution, the All setting will include repositories as well applications. This will impact the policies used for the Audit and Quarantine features of IQ for Nexus Repository Manager.

figs/web/server-policy-inheritance-repos.png

Figure 9.5. Inheritance Settings for Repositories


9.7.4. Constraints and Conditions

Constraints define the violations you want to detect. A constraint is essentially a container for conditions, and conditions are like the if part of an if/then statement. A policy must have at least one constraint, and each constraint must have a least one condition. When IQ Server evaluates your applications and the conditions of a constraint are met, then the policy is considered violated.

Constraints are made up of the following parts:

  • Constraint Name - This is a label for the constraint. It should describe the violation you want to detect, for example, High risk CVSS score or License needs legal review.
  • Any or All - It determines how constraints are evaluated. You can choose one of the following options:

    • Any - If any one of the conditions is met, then a policy violation is triggered. It is the equivalent of placing an or between each condition. This setting tends to produce a lot of policy violations.
    • All - If every condition is met, then a policy violation is triggered. This setting is the equivalent of placing an and between each condition. It tends to produce fewer policy violations.
  • Conditions - IQ Server can detect many types of violations such as security vulnerabilities, licensing problems, quality concerns (like popularity or age), and more. To define a condition, you choose the type of condition you want from a built-in list and set any applicable parameters.

Adding or editing a constraint is basically the same process whether you’re creating a new policy or editing an existing one. Once you navigate to the New Policy view or Edit Policy view, the following options are available for managing constraints:

  • Click the Add Constraint button to create a new constraint.
  • Click the Add Condition button to create a new condition.
  • Click the Delete button (looks like a trash can) next to a constraint name or condition to delete the setting.
  • In the Conditions section, select one of the condition types from the drop-down list. To set its parameters, you may need to make selections from a list and/or enter a value into a text box.
figs/web/clm-server-policy-constraints-and-conditions.png

Figure 9.6. Constraints and Conditions


Available Condition Types

Below is a list of all available condition types in IQ Server with explanations of what each condition type means and the parameters you need to set for each one.

Label
Verify if a specific component label is or is not assigned to a component. For information about creating and assigning component labels, see Component Labels in the Advanced Policy Management chapter.
License
Verify if the component license is or is not a specified license. If you’ve used the Component Information Panel to set a component’s license status to Overridden, then any licenses designated as Declared or Observed are ignored. If a component’s license status has not been overridden, then any occurrence (declared or observed) of the specified license is considered a match. To learn more about licenses, see License Analysis Tab in the Application Composition Report chapter.
License Status

Verify if the status of a user-defined license is or is not one of the following values:

  • Open
  • Acknowledged
  • Overridden
  • Selected
  • Confirmed

To learn more about licenses, see License Analysis Tab in the Application Composition Report chapter.

License Threat Group
Verify if a component’s license is or is not in a license threat group.
License Threat Group Level
Verify if the threat level of a component’s license threat group is less than or equal or greater than or equal to a specified threat level value. To learn more about license threat groups, see License Threat Groups in the Advanced Policy Management chapter.
Security Vulnerability
Verify if a security vulnerability is present or absent in data sources searched by IQ Server. To learn more about security vulnerabilities, see Security Issues in the Application Composition Report chapter.
Security Vulnerability Severity
Verify if a security vulnerability with a numeric severity is =, <, , >, or >= to a specified value. For more information about security vulnerability severity, see Security Issues in the Application Composition Report chapter.
Security Vulnerability Status

Verify if a component’s security vulnerability status is or is not one of the following values:

  • Open
  • Acknowledged
  • Not Applicable
  • Confirmed

For more information about security vulnerability status, see Security Issues in the Application Composition Report chapter.

Relative Popularity (Percentage)
Verify if the relative popularity of a component’s version (as compared to other versions of the same component) is =, <, , >, or >= to a specified percentage value. For more information about a component’s popularity, see Component Information Panel in the Application Composition Report chapter.
Age
Verify if a component is older than or younger than a specified value.
Match State
Verify if the comparison of a component to known components is or is not a match in one of the following ways: Exact, Similar, or Unknown. For more information about matching components, see Matching Components in the Application Composition Report chapter.
Coordinates

Verify if a component matches or does not match Maven or A-Name coordinates. For each type of coordinates, you enter specific attributes. You can use a wildcard (*) at the end of an attribute to broaden the search.

Maven - You fill in a component’s GAVEC, i.e. Group ID, Artifact ID, Version, Extension, and a Classifier, for example:

Group ID: org.sonatype.nexus
Artifact ID: nexus-indexer
Version: 1.0
Extension: jar
Classifier: sources

Group ID: org.sonatype*
Artifact ID: nexus-indexer
Version: 1.*
Extension: *
Classifier:

A-Name - A-Name is short for Authoritative Name, an identifier created by Sonatype to identify components agnostic of the repository format. You fill in a Name, Qualifier, and Version, for example:

Name: log4net
Qualifier: Framework 3.5
Version: 2.0.5

Name: log4net
Qualifier:
Version: 1.*
Proprietary
Verify if a component is or is not considered proprietary. For more information about proprietary components, see Managing Proprietary Components in the Application Composition Report chapter.
Identification Source

Verify if the identification of a component is or is not one of the following:

  • Sonatype - When the identification is done based on IQ Server data sources.
  • Manual - When the identification is done based on a component claimed by you.

For more information about the identification source see Component Identification in the Application Composition Report chapter.

9.7.5. Actions

Policy actions allow you to designate an action to take when violations occur at a particular stage in the development lifecycle. For each stage, you can assign one of the following actions:

  • No Action - This is the default setting.
  • Warn - Policy violations are worthy of a warning.
  • Fail - Policy violations are severe enough to potentially halt the development lifecycle.

If you connected IQ Server with an external tool, the action can have a direct effect on the tool. When an external tool requests a policy evaluation (of an application, repository or component), IQ Server provides policy violation information along with the action, which the tool may (or may not) implement. For example, if you set the Build stage to Fail in a policy, a CI tool (such as Bamboo, Jenkins, or Hudson) may stop the build of an application when that policy is violated. Similarly, in a different tool, if you set a stage to Warn, a warning message may be displayed or logged in a file when policy violations occur. For more details on using actions, see Usage Suggestions for Each Stage.

To add actions to a policy:

  1. In the Organization & Policy area, create a new policy or open an existing one for an organization or application.
  2. In the Policy editor, click the Actions button to scroll to the Actions section.
  3. Click the desired action--No Action, 'Warn, or Fail--at specific stage(s).
  4. Click Update (or Create) to save the policy.
figs/web/clm-server-policy-actions.png

Figure 9.7. Policy Actions


Usage Suggestions for Each Stage
Proxy

Available only with the Nexus Firewall solution. Proxy refers to "Proxy Repository", or the point where components enter your repository manager. This is also referred to as the repository integration point. For more information on how to use the repository integration point, see the IQ for Nexus Repository Manager chapter.

When setting actions, Warn will have no effect on what happens to components in the repository. However, if you have enabled Quarantine on a repository, and set the action to Fail, any new components added to the repository will be quarantined (unavailable via the Repository Manager).

[Warning]

Quarantined components will not be available to your development team, including any attempt to build existing projects using those components.

Develop
While actions and notifications can be configured for this stage, they may not affect the functionality of an IDE.
Build
As you manage policies, making necessary adjustments over time, it’s best to take an approach that allows for your development teams to be eased into dealing with violations. For this reason, it’s better to start by simply warning when the CI build for an application contains components that violate your policies.
Stage Release
Because this stage gives the opportunity to prevent an application from being released with components that have violated policies, setting the action for a Stage Release to Fail is recommended. This is especially true for any policies that may include risk associated with security and/or licensing.
Release

While there should be the closest scrutiny of policy violations at this point, it is recommended that you fail a release based on severe violations. Ideally, in most cases, you should be finding only new violations.

[Tip]

If you have setup policy monitoring, it is a good idea to monitor your release stage, as this is likely the best representation of your production application.

Operate
Because the evaluation in the Operate stage is manual, a Warn or Fail action may not have any effect.

9.7.6. Notifications

Notifications enable you to send a summary of new policy violations when they occur at a specific stage of development. Notifications are sent whenever an application is evaluated either manually (e.g. using the Evaluate Binary command in the Organization & Policy area) or automatically via any tool integrated into the IQ Server (e.g. Nexus IQ for Hudson/Jenkins 1.x) or if Continuous Monitoring is activated. The notifications can be delivered to email addresses or create a JIRA ticket. The emails are sent to individual addresses or users assigned to a particular role such as Owner or Application Evaluator. The JIRA tickets are created as a specified issue type for the selected JIRA project.

[Tip]

When a notification is sent, it will only display new violations found in the latest evaluation. If you find yourself not receiving notifications, verify there are new violations, as well as confirm you have configured your IQ Server SMTP settings. For information on SMTP settings in IQ Server, see the Email Configuration section of the IQ Server Setup chapter.

[Note]

JIRA notifications are only available if a JIRA server is configured. See the JIRA Notifications section below.

When you have repository auditing setup, then notifications will be sent when a new component that violates policy enters your repository manager.

[Note]

The initial repository audit and re-evaluations of policies on repositories do not send notifications.

To set notifications in a policy:

  1. In the Organization & Policy area, create a new policy or open an existing one for an organization or application.
  2. In the Policy editor, click the Notifications button to scroll to the Notifications section.
  3. Provide recipient information:

    1. Select a Recipient Type. If Email, then enter an email address. If Role, then select a user role from the list. For JIRA notifications, enter a project and select an applicable issue type.
    2. Click Add to insert the recipient.
  4. Click to select the stage(s) for which to send notifications to a recipient.

    [Note]

    For the Continuous Monitoring stage, you must have monitoring activated for the application or a parent organization. To learn more about continuous monitoring, see Continuous Monitoring in Applications later in this chapter.

  5. Click Create (or Update) to save the new policy.

    [Tip]

    To remove a recipient, click the Delete button (looks like a trash can) for a particular recipient.

    [Note]

    Be sure to select a stage for a recipient; if omitted, no notifications will be sent to the recipient.

figs/web/clm-server-policy-notifications.png

Figure 9.8. Policy Notifications


Usage Suggestions for Notifications at Each Stage
Proxy
Consider setting up notifications to inform repository owners or Nexus Repository Manager administrators that are responsible for safe-guarding components entering the organization. You can also view any policy violations that occur during this stage in the Repository Results.
Develop
Policy violations triggered by IDE-related activity generally do not send any notifications.
Build
Consider setting up notifications to inform owners, as well as developers.
Stage Release
If something fails, the development process can not move forward. Make sure to notify anyone who is responsible for the application’s release and/or capable of researching and addressing any violations.
Release
Similar to Stage Release, make sure to notify anyone responsible for ensuring an application does not go into production with policy violations.
Operate
Typically the application owner, or anyone responsible for ongoing maintenance of an application in production should be notified.

9.7.7. JIRA Notifications

The JIRA notifications, as stated in the previous section, will create a JIRA issue when new policy violations are discovered during the development process. To create JIRA notifications, you must configure a valid JIRA server and credentials in your IQ Server’s config.yml. Without this configuration you will not see the JIRA option in the Recipient Type drop-down. An example config.yml file can be seen below:

# Notification JIRA settings.
jira:
  # The JIRA server address
  url: "https://127.0.0.1/"

  # The username used to connect to the JIRA server
  username: "anonymous"

  # The password used to connect to the JIRA server
  password: "guest"

  # Any custom fields that you wish to populate in the JIRA notification. Any
  # required fields must have default values configured here. Examples are shown below.
  #customFields:
  #  reporter:
  #    name: "username"
  #  labels:
  #    - test
  #    - bug
  #  environment: "dev"
  #  duedate: "2016-11-01"

You may also configure any custom fields to be populated in the JIRA notification by utilizing the customFields section in the IQ Server config.yml. Any fields that are required on the issue type used for notifications must be configured this way otherwise the notification will fail.

[Caution]

A JIRA system user should be configured for integration with IQ Server. Any authenticated user of the IQ Server will be able to view the projects and applicable issue types available to the user configured in the config.yml. IQ Server users who can create and edit policy will be able to set up automated ticket creation for any project over which the configured JIRA user has authority to create tickets.

To configure JIRA notifications:

  1. Select the Policy for which you will be notified when that policy is violated.
  2. Select JIRA from the Recipient Type drop-down menu.
  3. Select the Project and an Issue Type.
  4. Click Add to add the notification.
figs/orig/jira-notification-add.png

Figure 9.9. JIRA Notification Create


Once you have created the notification, you can then choose at which stage(s) you would like to be notified.

figs/orig/jira-notification-configure.png

Figure 9.10. JIRA Notification Configuration


[Note]

In addition to having a valid JIRA server and credentials in the IQ Server’s config.yml, if the JIRA issue type used for notifications has any required fields other than Summary and Description, those fields must have default values associated with them. Otherwise, IQ Server cannot create the issue in JIRA.

[Note]

In JIRA 7, the Reporter field of an issue is required by default. In order to create JIRA notifications, you must either turn off the required setting, assign a default value for the issue type, or configure it using the custom fields section in the config.yml.